The World’s First (and Only) Truly Phonemic Alphabet

Full NAVLIPI Alphabet with Word Examples

 

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NAVLIPI in ‘Alphabetical Order’: As it would be Taught, with WORD EXAMPLES in common languages.
(Only the most commonly used phones and phonemes are given. Examples of RARE phones/phonemes are omitted.)
Legend
  • NAVLIPI transcription given in square brackets after each word example.
  • When non-English word examples are cited, definition is given, in parentheses and quotes.
  • Thus, e.g.: i English hit [hiₒ]. Irish gall [gaa], (“stranger”).
Vowels**, Fundamental
001 q [2(2)(1)], a [2(2)(3)], aa [2(2)(4)]
007 i [1(1)(1)], ii [1(1)(1)], u [3(3)(1)], uu [3(3)(1)]
011 ₒ [2(4)(-1)],  [2(4)(2)], l [2(9)(2)],  [2(11)(2)]
081 mm [2(12)(2)], nn [2(13)(2)]
q English about [qbaauₒ].
i English hit [hiₒ].
English heat [hₒ].
u English pull [pₒul].
English pool [pₒl].
ₒ Tamil பழம் (pazham) [paoam], (“fruit”).
American English purchase [pₒqchₒƐs].
l American English able [Ɛbl].
Irish gall [gaa], (“stranger”).
mm South African name Mbeki [MmbƐkii]
nn East African name Nkomo [Nnkomo]
(**Vowels are defined as phones where breath is completely or almost completely unimpeded.) Vowels, Derivative
20 Ɛ [1(1)(2)], ƐƐ [1(1)(2)], e [1(1)(3)], ee [1(1)(3)], Ɔ [1(1)(4)], ƆƆ [1(1)(4)]
26 y [3(1)(1)], yy [3(1)(1)], o/ [3(1)(2)], o// [3(1)(3)]
30 o [3(3)(3)], oo [3(3)(3)],  [3(3)(4)],  [3(3)(4)]
Ɛ English clay [klƐ].
ƐƐ French des [ₒƐƐ], (“of”).
e English bet [beₒ].
ee English fair [fee, feer].
Ɔ English hat [hƆₒ].
ƆƆ English man [mƆƆn].
y French tu [ₒy], (“you”, singular).
yy German üblich [yyblix], (“customary”).
o/ French peu [po/], (“little”).
o// French peur [po//], (“fear”).
o Spanish doble [doblƐ], (“double”).
oo English door [ₒoo, ₒoor].
English talk [ₒko].
 English ball [bl].
Non-Vowels##, Glottal&&
034  [1-1], h [6-1], h.. [6-2]
: Arabic saala [sa:ala], (“asked”). Hawaiian name, Hawai I [Hawaai:i]
h English hit [hiₒ].
h.. Arabic hurub [h..urub], (“war”).
(##Non-vowels are defined as all phones that are not vowels. Thus, this includes, e.g., plosives, fricatives, “semi-vowels”, approximants, clicks and implosives.) (&&For articulation positions, see elsewhere in this website.) Non-Vowels, Uvular
037 k.. [1-3], k..hₒ [2-3], g.. [3-3], n.. [5-3], x.. [6-3], .. [7-3]
k.. Arabic qalb [k..alb], (“heart”).
k..hₒ Arabic xilaaf [k..hₒilƆf], (“against”).
g.. Arabic ghaban [g..aban], (“bankruptcy”).
n.. Japanese ban [baan..], (“turn”).
x.. German doch [ₒox..], (“but yes”).
.. Parisian French rouler [..ulƐ], (“to roll”).
Non-Vowels, Velar
043 k [1-4], khₒ [2-4], g [3-4], ghₒ [4-4], nₒ [5-4], x [6-4],  [7-4]
k English sky [skaaƐ]
kh English kitten [khitn], Hindi/Urdu kholnaa (“to open”) [kholnaa]
g English good [guₒ]
ghₒ Hindi/Urdu ghanaa [ghₒanaa], (“deep, dense”).
n English king [kig]
x Irish chaol [xeol], (“thin”).
Faarsi gham [am], (“sadness”).
Non-Vowels, Retroflex
050  [1-5], h [2-5],  [3-5],  [4-5],  [5-5], h [6-5], h [7-5],  . [8-5], hₒ [9-5], . [10-5]
Hindi/Urdu toota [uuaa], (“broken”).
Hindi/Urdu theek [iik], (“OK, all right”).
Hindi/Urdu daak [aak], (“mail”).
Hindi/Urdu dheela [iilaa], (“loose”).
Hindi/Urdu ganatantra [gaatantra], (“democracy, people’s rule”).
h Hindi/Urdu irshya [iirhjaa], (“jealousy”).
. Hindi/Urdu kadak [ka.ak], (“hard, tough, stiff”).
hₒ. Hind/Urdu padhnaa [pahₒ.naa], (“to study”).
. Panjabi lena [lƐ.aa], (“to take”).
Non-Vowels, Medio-Palatal
063  [1-6],  [3-6],  [5-6],  [6-6]
Turkish car [ar], (“advantage, profit”).
Turkish jem [Ɛm], (“horse bit”).
Irish ngiall [ jaal], (“hostage”).
 Hungarian narancssarga [naranaargaa], (“orange color”).
Non-Vowels, Palatal
068 c [1-7], chₒ [2-7],  [3-7],  [4-7],  [5-7], sh [6-7], zh [7-7]
075 j [28-7]
c Italian ciao [caao], (“bye”).
chₒ Hindi/Urdu chhed [chₒƐd], “hole”.
English joke [ouk].
Hindi/Urdu jhoola [uulaa], (“swing”).
English inch [ic]
sh English shoot [shuuₒ]
zh English pleasure [pₒlezhqr]
j English yes [jes]
Non-Vowels, Alveolar
077  [1-8], h [2-8],  [3-8], n [5-8],  [6-8]
ₒ English sty [sₒaaƐ]
 English tomorrow [umro]
ₒ English day [ₒƐi]
n English indeed [inₒiiₒ]
h Mandarin xie xie [hhiƐ], (“thank you”).
Non-Vowels, Dental
095 t [1-10],  [2-10], d [3-10], dh [4-10], n [5-10] (PCON)
t Spanish, Italian, Hindi/Urdu tu [tuu], (“you”, singular).
Hindi/Urdu thaknaa [aknaa], (“to get tired”).
d Spanish dar [daar], (“to give”); Hindi/Urdu denaa [naa], (“to give”).
Hindi/Urdu dhonaa [onaa], (“to wash”).
n Spanish andar [aandaar], (“to walk”); Hindi/Urdu andar [andar], (“inside, interior”).
Non-Vowels, Dental, Pharyngealized
100 t.. [1-11], d.. [3-11]
Arabic kitab [kiƆb], (“book”).
Arabic kidab [kiƆb], (“henna”).
Non-Vowels, Bilabial
109 p [1-15], phₒ [2-15], b [3-15], bhₒ [4-15], m [5-15]
117 w [28-15]
p English spy [spₒaaƐ]
ph English put [pₒuₒ], Hindi/Urdu phal (“fruit”) [phal]
b English bit [biₒ]
bh Hindi/Urdu bhook [phuuk], (“hunger”).
m English met [meₒ]
w English wet [weₒ]
Non-Vowels, Fricatives, Alveolar
093 s [6-9], z [7-9]
s English sit [siₒ]
z English zombie [zmbi]
Non-Vowels, Fricatives, Labiodental
107 f [6-13], v [7-13]
f English fat, fit [fƆₒ, fiₒ]
v English vein [vƐin]
Non-Vowels, Centrals Non-Vowels, LateralsMost Common Post-OpsMost Common Phonemic Condensates Not Represented by Post-Ops
060  [30-5], ₒ [30-5F]
084 r [8-8], rh [11-8], rr [12-8]
(American) English purchase [pₒqchₒƐs]
ₒ Tamil pazham பழம் [paoam], (“fruit”).
r Spanish pero [pero], (“but”); Hindi/Urdu karo [karo], (“do!” (command))
rr Spanish perro [perro], (“(male) dog”).
088 l [31-8]
 [31-5]
l English lit [liₒ]
Tamil pallam பள்ளம் [paam], (“hole”).
hₒ Aspiration e.g. [p] (unaspirated) (as in Hindi/Urdu pal, “an instant”) [pal] vs. [phₒ] (aspirated) (as in Hindi/Urdu phal, “fruit”) [phₒal]
h Fricatization e.g. [t] (dental plosive) (as in Spanish, Italian, Hindi/Urdu tu [tuu], “you (singular)”) vs. [th] (dental or interdental fricative) (as in English thin) [thin]]
Unvoiced + Voiced e.g. [b] (e.g. Mandarin bu also articulated pu [bu], “no, not”)
n, m, ~ Nasalization as in Portuguese São [Sã or San or Sam] (“saint”)
. Flap/tap e.g. Hindi/Urdu doobnaa [uubnaa] (“to drown”) vs. Hindi/Urdu [ka.ak] (“tough, hard, brittle”)
.. Pharyngeal or uvular or “faucal” variant e.g. English sky [skaaƐ] vs. Arabic qalb [k..alb] (“heart”)
Click, ingressive e.g. English “tsk tsk” [tt] (indication of disapproval or negativity); e.g. common sound to urge on horses, the “giddyap” click [lll] (repeated).
vw Can be articulated either as [v] or as [w], e.g. Hindi/Urdu van, wan [vwan], “forest, wood”
xr Can be articulated either as trilled [rrr] or as uvular or velar fricative [x.] or [x] (whether voiced or unvoiced e.g. Parisian French rien (“nothing”) [xrien or xrie~].
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The FULL NAVLIPI ALPHABET: “Alphabetical order” of NAVLIPI for didactic (teaching) purposes
Given below is the full NAVLIPI script (alphabet) as it would be taught. For a more detailed description, including word examples in major world languages, please see NAVLIPI Made Simple 1: For Beginners or the full NAVLIPI book, Vol. I. In the representation below, which is NAVLIPI as it would be taught, e.g. to children in schools, the numbers in the left margin are added for convenience in referring to the glyphs (letters) of the alphabet. Thus, #15 is the letter r.
A. Vowels, Fundamental
001 q [2(2)(1)], qq [2(2)(1)], a [2(2)(3)], aₒ [2(2)(3)], aa [2(2)(4)], aaₒ [2(2)(4)]
007 i [1(1)(1)], ii [1(1)(1)], u [3(3)(1)], uu [3(3)(1)]
011 ₒ [2(4)(-1)],  [2(4)(2)],  [2(5)(2)],  [2(7)(2)], r [PCON-8], l [2(9)(2)],  [2(11)(2)]
081 mm [2(12)(2)], nn [2(13)(2)]
B. Vowels, Derivative
20 Ɛ [1(1)(2)], ƐƐ [1(1)(2)], e [1(1)(3)], ee [1(1)(3)], Ɔ [1(1)(4)], ƆƆ [1(1)(4)]
26 y [3(1)(1)], yy [3(1)(1)], o/ [3(1)(2)], o// [3(1)(3)]
30 o [3(3)(3)], oo [3(3)(3)],  [3(3)(4)],  [3(3)(4)]
N.B.: Total number of vowels: 45 of which 22 have short / long versions (=44) (not all shown in above list) and one of which is a phonemic condensate. B. Non-vowels, except clicks, ejectives, and implosives
034  [1-1], h [6-1], h.. [6-2]
037 k.. [1-3], k..hₒ [2-3], g.. [3-3], n.. [5-3], x.. [6-3], .. [7-3]
043 k [1-4], khₒ [2-4], g [3-4], ghₒ [4-4], nₒ [5-4], x [6-4],  [7-4]
050  [1-5], th [2-5],  [3-5],  [4-5],  [5-5], h [6-5], h [7-5], . [8-5], hₒ [9-5], . [10-5]
060  [30-5], ₒ [30-5F],  [31-5]
063  [1-6],  [3-6],  [5-6], h [6-6],  [7-6]
068 c [1-7], chₒ [2-7],  [3-7],  [4-7],  [5-7], sh [6-7], zh [7-7]
075 j [28-7],  [31-7]
077  [1-8], tth [2-8],  [3-8],  [4-8] n [5-8], hₒ [6-8], h₀ [7-8]
084 r [8-8], rh [11-8], rr [12-8], rrh [13-8] (***)
088 l [31-8], lhₒ [32-8]
090 lh [33-8], lj [34-8], l.. [35-8]
093 s [6-9], z [7-9]
095 t [1-10],  [2-10], d [3-10], dh [4-10], n [5-10] (PCON)
100 t.. [1-11], d.. [3-11], th.. [6-11]
103 dh.. [7-11], th [6-12], dh [7-12],  [31-12]
107 f [6-13], v [7-13]
109 p [1-15], phₒ [2-15], b [3-15], bhₒ [4-15], m [5-15], ph [6-15], bh [7-15], phph [12-15]
117 w [28-15], w° [28-15b]
(***) rₒ [30-8], placed here, is very rare, so not used.
Phonemic Condensates (illustrated with examples where appropriate)
119 pₒ [PCON-1], (aspirate + non-aspirate), p [PCON-2] (unvoiced + voiced), kh [PCON-3] (stop + fricative)
122 ph [PCON-4] (stop + forward fricative)
123 b [PCON-5] (stop + semi-vowel), vw [PCON-6] (semi-vowel + forward fricative), ttr [PCON-7] (stop + flap)
126 xr [PCON-10] [((trill + flap + semi-vowel) in alveolo-dental artition) + (uvular fricative)]
127 a= [PCON-15] Denotes a “mobile, generic” vowel where choice of vowel does not appear to matter, e.g. in some Semitic and Chinese languages.
(PCON-11 to PCON-14, PCON-16, PCON-17 not in alphabetical order since they are very rare.)
E. Tones In the “alphabetical order”, tones will be placed here. However, tones will be language specific. Hence, for tonal languages, each language’s tones will be placed here, in the order that they are taught traditionally in that language. Thus, e.g., for Mandarin, the four tones will be placed here in the order they are traditionally taught, with word examples. F. Clicks, Implosives, Ejectives* 137 [14-6]138c [14-7], c’ [24-7], z’ [27-7]
128 k..k.. [17-3], k [14-4], kk [17-4], k’ [24-4], g” [27-4]
133  [14-5],  [15-5], n [16-5],  [17-5]
141  [14-8], d [15-8], n [16-8]
144 l [18-8],  [2-5], ln [20-8]
147  [22-8], l [23-8]
149 ’ [24-8], dt” [27-8]
151 s’ [25-9], t [14-10],  [22-10], l [23-10], t” [27-10]
156 f’ [25-13], p [14-15], p [1-6], p’ [24-15], b’ [27-15]
*As these are rare in the world’s major languages, they are placed last in the “alphabetical order”, and are unlikely to be taught at all, except in the languages to which they apply.
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NAVLIPI is…

  • …the world’s first and only practical phonemic script (alphabet), conveying phonemic information.
  • …a new, universal script (alphabet) addressing the phonemic idiosyncrasies of all the world’s languages.
  • …the only world script conveying information on phonemic idiosyncrasies specific to individual languages.

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NAVLIPI: A New, Universal Script (“Alphabet”) Accommodating the Phonemic Idiosyncrasies of All the World’s Languages.

VOLUME I: Another Look at Phonic and Phonemic Classification: Navlipi.

VOLUME II: Navlipi Companion: A Primer in Linguistics, Phonetics, Phonemics and Writing Systems with a Difference.

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