Remember that NAVLIPI uses the Latin alphabet as used for English, but with the letters used more phonetically, in their original phonetic sense in Latin or as in modern Spanish, rather than the most-unphonetic English! Also note that NAVLIPI does use and distinguish between upper-case (capital) letters and lower case (small) letters, unlike most of the Indian alphabets, which do not


2.1 Long VOWELS:


  • Represented by reduplication: Thus, short (as in English hit, Hindi becomes long ii (as in English heat, Hindi ). Similarly, short (as in English good, Hindi )becomes long uu (as in English boot, Hindi ), etc., etc. And similarly, short o, (as in Spanish no) becomes long oo (as in Spanish favor, Hindi ). [aa is an exception, see below.]


2.2 Some common VOWELS which are used a bit differently from how they are used in English or Spanish:



2.3 Some common NON-VOWELS (consonants) which are used a bit differently from how they are used in Spanish or English:



2.4 Some common NON-VOWELS (consonants) specific to particular languages or language groups:


  • Alveolar t- and d-sounds (tongue touching the alveolar ridge which is further back from the teeth), found e.g. in English, German, Russian and Italian, and distinguished from the Spanish and Old Latin true dental t- and d-sounds. For these alveolar sounds, NAVLIPI uses the transformed letters tt (or alternatively, just tt) and dt (or alternatively, just dt)


2.5 General NAVLIPI usage applicable to ALL languages:




2.6 PHONEMES: Some examples of their representation in NAVLIPI: